Subsoil Compaction

Distribution, Processes and Consequences

Ed.: R. Horn; J. J. H. van den Akker; J. Arvidsson

2000. 462 pages, 160 figures, 108 tables, Catena ISBN 978-3-923381-44-9, US-ISBN 1-59326-240-X, 17x24cm, 1050 g
Language: English

(Advances in Geoecology, Volume 32)

ISBN 978-3-510-65371-3, bound, price: 101.00 €

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modellingsoil degradation erosion windclimate


Synopsis top ↑

Subsoil compaction induced by compression and shearing is characterised as one of the most harmful and persisting degradation phenomena. During the last 3-4 decades not only the mass of the agricultural and forestry machinery has been enlarged 3-4 fold, but also the frequency of wheeling is increased by the same proportion. It is often reported that more than 30 Mha of farm land are classified as irreversibly degraded by subsoil compaction even only in Europe, while world wide more than 80 Mha are deformed as a result of such non site and time adjusted agricultural and / or perhaps also forestral management strategies. How far the consequences of subsoil compaction phenomena also result in a more pronounced mass transport and resulting soil degradation by water and wind erosion is also often mentioned or speculated and at least partly proofed by the increased mass transport by water in the traffic lanes. In addition the plowpan impermeability also causes water interflow with an induced consecutive submerged soil suspension mass transfer.
Although many of the effects, which cause e.g. a reduced penetration of roots, infiltration of water, aeration and delayed nutrient ad- and desorption phenomena, are already well known, often described and partly explained monocausally, there is still an urgent need to get a more complete insight in the processes and the restrictions to the applied prediction models. Processes inside unsaturated aggregated soils and their pore systems during soil compaction and shearing have to be more completely understood, defined and also related as coupled processes to the changes in physical, chemical and biological properties in the three phase soil systems in order to get more complete process oriented knowledge and informations for defining prevention strategies and recommendation for a site adjusted and sustainable land use. Especially the discussions about vulnerability, economics, and even climatic (global) change aspects require not only more specific research under defined laboratory and field conditions, but also the intense discussion amongst scientists from various disciplines (e.g. soil sciences, plant production, agricultural engineering, soil mechanics and mathematical modelling).
Thus, based on this idea scientists from more than 30 countries out of 4 continents met in Kiel/Germany during a series of 3 workshops in march 1999 in order to focus their discussions on distribution, processes and consequences of subsoil compaction on the environment and to also give some preliminary recommendations how to prevent, handle and ameliorate subsoil compaction problems.
The book contains a selection of papers and poster presentations which cover the topics: Theory, Modelling, Site Properties, Distribution, and Methods.

Table of Contents top ↑

R. Horn
Introductory remarks
Chapter I: Theory
R. Horn
Preface 1
J. Arvidsson, A. Trautner & J.J.H. van den Akker
Subsoil compaction - risk assessment and economic consequences 3
T. Baumgartl, J. Rostek & R. Horn
Internal and external stresses affecting the water retention curve 13
P.D. Hallett, A.R. Dexter, N.R.A. Bird & J.P.K. Seville
Scaling of the structure and strength of soil aggregates 22
K.H. Hartge
The effect of soil deformation on physical soil properties
- A discourse on the common background - 32
R. Horn & J. Rostek
Subsoil compaction processes - state of knowledge 44
A. Paz & J. Guerif
Influence of initial packing density, water content and load applied
during compaction on tensile strength of dry soil structural units 55
B.P. Warkentin
Clay surface changes on soil compaction 64
P. Weisskopf, U. Zihlmann, C. Wiermann, R. Horn, Th. Anken & E.
Diserens Influences of conventional and onland-ploughing on soil
structure 73
T.R. Way, T.Kishimoto, E.C. Burt & A.C. Bailey
Soil-tire interface pressures of a low aspect ratio tractor tire 82
Chapter II: Modelling
J.J.H. v.d.Akker
Preface 93
A.K. Guber
Water movement forecasting model in soils under compaction 97
C.E. Johnson, A.C. Bailey & W. A. Foster, Jr.
Soft soil behavior 107
A.J. Koolen & J.J.H. van den Akker
On the use of agricultural soil data required in soil deformation
models 118
A.M. Mouazen & M. Nemenyi
Finite element modelling of subsoiling processes 126
J.H.M. Wosten
The HYPRES database of hydraulic properties of European soils 135
Jie Zhuang, Guirui Yu, Tsuyoshi Miyazaki & Keiichi Nakayama
Modeling effect of compaction on soil hydraulic properties - A NSMC
scaling method for saturated hydraulic conductivity - 144
C. Simota, J. Lipiec E. Dumitru & S. Tarkiewicz
SIBIL - A simulation model for soil water dynamics and crop yield
formation considering soil compaction effects - Model description 154
A. Trautner, H. Fleige, J.J.H van den Akker, J. Arvidsson, R. Horn,
K. Pedersen
Structure, development and use of a database about soil physical and
mechanical properties and crop response as related to subsoil
compaction 169
B. G. Richards, T. Baumgartl & R. Horn
Modelling coupled processes in structured unsaturated soils
- Theory and examples - 175
P. Febo, F. Lucurelli & D. Pessina
Soil-tyre interaction parameters influencing soil compcation:
- A study of contact area prediction models - 191
Chapter III: Properties
J. Arvidsson
Preface 202
L. Alakukku
Response of annual crops to subsoil compaction in a field experiment on
clay soil lasting 17 years 205
P. Bazzoffi & S. Pellegrini
Stratification of soil compaction, structure decay and soil erosion as
influenced by urban refuse compost and low-pressure tractor tyres 209
H.H. Becher
Influence of soil heterogeneity and water tension on the penetration
resistance of aggregates from loess-derived soils 218
M. Berli, B. Kulli, W. Attinger & R. Schulin
Subsoil compaction of agricultural land by heavy construction machinery
- Soil mechanical aspects - 226
H. Boizard, G. Richard, M. Brancourt-Hulmel & J. Guérif
Effect of cropping systems on change in bulk density, penetration resistance
and hydraulic conductivity in subsoil 233
A. Castrignano, M. Maiorana & F. Fornaro
Evaluation of mechanical impedance of a silty clay soil in two soil tillage
systems in Southern Italy 242
Cs. Farkas, Cs. Gyuricza, P. Lâszlô & M. Birkds
Study of the influence of soil tillage on soil water regime 251
H. Fleige & R. Horn
Field experiments on the effect of soil compaction on soil properties,
runoff, interflow and erosion 258
J.L. Hernanz & V. Sánchez-Girán
Compaction effects due to field traffic on soil properties and the
response of different crops in three tillage systems 269
B. Kulli, M. Berli, M. Gysi, R. Schulin & H. Flühler
Subsoil compaction on agricultural land by heavy construction machinery
- Soil physical aspects - 278
O. Larink & St. Schrader
Rehabilitation of degraded compacted soil by earthworms 284
F. Moreno, F. Pelegrín, J.E. Fernández, J.M. Murillo & I.F. Girón
Influence of climatic conditions on soil physical properties under
traditional and conservation tillage 295
M. Pagliai, S. Pellegrini, N. Vignozzi, S. Rousseva & O. Grasselli
The quantification of the effect of subsoil compaction on soil porosity
and related physical properties under conventional to reduced
management practices 305
V.A. Snyder, J. Rivadeneira & H.M. Lugo
Temporal changes in soil structure and hydraulic properties in the
plow layer of an Oxisol (Orthic Ferralsol) following tillage 314
A. Velykis
Effect of subsoiling on agrophysical properties of compacted
clay loam soil 325
W.B. Voorhees
Long-term effect of subsoil compaction on yield of maize 331
C. Wiermann & R. Horn
Effect of different tillage systems on the recovery of soil structure
following a single compaction event 339
Chapter IV: Distribution
W.C.T. Chamen
Preface 351
M. Birkás, T. Szalai, C. Gyuricza, M. Jolánkai & M. Geese
Subsoil compaction problems in Hungary 354
A. Canarache
Review of research on subsoil compaction of pedogenic origin in Romania:
Extent, effects, remediation 363
W.C.T. Chamen
The impact of tillage practices on the soil and wider environment,
with particular regard to arable cropping in England 370
E. Fulajtár
Assessment and determination of the compacted soils in Slovakia 384
S. Rousseva, T. Mitova, K. Stoinev & I. Dimitrov
Studies on subsoil compaction by tillage and traffic in Bulgaria:
A review 388
F. R. Zaidelman
The impact of deep loosening on physical properties and fertility of
heavy-textured gleyed soils 397
E. Nugis & J. Kuht
Subsoil compaction in Estonia 402
Chapter V: Methods
M. O'Sullivan
Preface 409
J.B. Dawidowski, J.E. Morrison & M. Snieg
Determination of soil precompaction stress from in situ tests 411
E. V. Shein
Spatial and temporal variability of soil density, water content and
water retention curves 419
G. Spoor
Compaction characteristics of swelling clay subsoils 427
S. Tarkiewicz & J. Lipiec
Methods for simultaneous recording of stresses and displacements in
soil under wheels of agricultural machinery 435
F.G.J. Tijink & J.P. van der Linden
Egineering approaches to prevent subsoil compaction in cropping
systems with sugar beet 442
Per Schjønning
Proposing drop-cone penetration as a mean of estimating soil internal
friction and cohesion 453