cover

Osvaldo R. Arce Burgoa:

Metalliferous Ore Deposits of Bolivia

2009. 2. edition, 233 pages, 97 figures, 16 tables, ribbon, 22x29cm, 2010 g
Language: English

ISBN 978-3-510-65409-3, bound, price: 110.00 €

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Keywords

metalminingexplorationstratigraphysedimentary rockCordillera

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

This book deals mainly with the mineralization and its associated resource potential in the different tectonic md geological units of Bolivia. It reports a general description of the geology, structure, and lithostratigraphy of Bolivia, and of the various metallogenic provinces, mining districts, metal deposits, and most representative mineral occurrences. The book emphasizes the discoveries made during the last twenty years, and the distribution in styles of mineralization, geotectonic setting, stratigraphic controls, and conceptual models.
The term metallogenetic province or region refers to a relatively large area, characterized by a particular association of mineral deposits, which may contain one or more styles and/or episodes of mineralization. A belt is an elongated area comprised of a group of metalliferous deposits or occurrences without genetic or historical connotations. District covers a smaller area in extent that includes one or more deposits with similar geological features and controlled by certain lithologies, structural elements, and hydrothermal alteration. The book also summarizes the magmatism associated with the metallogeny, describes the evolution of prices and production of major metals, and provides an analysis of mineral prospecting over the short, medium, and long term, based on an estimate of mineral resources of deposits in current production and prospects under exploration.
The geological information and the mineral-geological analysis are, in part, products of more than twenty rears of research and exploratory work. This work also has incorporated the findings of other authors, who have published important geological information on certain metal deposits in the country, and which after validation and correlation, are referenced within the text.
While the basic geological information regarding the deposits currently in operation or undergoing advanced exploration is relatively available, such information for several dozens of prospects discovered during the last twenty rears is virtually unknown. Indeed, one objective of this work is to make available, where possible, information about new sites and prospects from the companies that have generated it.
This study aims to provide a comprehensive tool for students, researchers, professionals, and investors summarizing geology, metallogeny, and mineral exploration in Bolivia. Finally, it shows mining investment opportunities offered by the country and the urgent need to discover new economically exploitable deposits, due to rapid depletion of existing ones, and due to the country itself, during the last ten years, starting to slip in ts global ranking as a major producer of metals. The new findings will undoubtedly form the basis of a future modern Bolivian mining industryand one of the pillars of the national economy for a long time into the future.

Table of Contents top ↑

1. Introduction 1
2. Synthesis of the Geology of Bolivia 3
2.1 The Bolivian Precambrian Shield 4
2.2 The Chaco-Beni Plains 8
2.3 The Bolivian Andean Orogen 8
2.3.1 The Subandean Zone 8
2.3.2 The Eastern Cordillera 10
2.3.3 The Altiplano 10
2.3.4 The Western Cordillera 11
3. Structural Geology and Lithostratigraphy of Bolivia 13
3.1 Structural Geology 13
3.1.1 Proterozoic 13
3.1.2 Phanerozoic 13
3.2 Stratigraphy 15
3.2.1 Lomas Manechis Granulitic Complex Superunit, Paleoproterozoic 15
3.2.2 Chiquitania, Santa Rita, Rio Fortuna and Aventura
Metamorphic Complexes Superunit, Lower Mesoproterozoic 16
3.2.3 San Ignacio Schist Supergroup, Mid-Mesoproterozoic 16
3.2.4 Tacsara Supersequence, Upper Cambrian-
Mid-Ordovician (Mid Caradocian) 16
3.2.5 Chuquisaca Supersequence, Mid/Upper Ordovician
(Upper Caradocian) - Upper Devonian (Mid Famennian)17
3.2.6 Villamontes Supersequence, Upper Devonian
(Upper Famennian) — Lower Carboniferous (Mississippian)19
3.2.7 Cuevo Supersequence, Mid/Upper Carboniferous (Pennsilvanian) - Lower Triassic 21
3.2.8 Serere Supersequence, Mid Triassic-Mid Jurassic 21
3.2.9 Puca A+B Supersequence: Upper Jurassic - Mid Cretaceous (Turonian) 21
3.2.10 Puca C Supersequence: Upper Cretaceous (Senonian) - Mid Paleocene 22
3.2.11 Corocoro Supersequence: Final-Recent Paleocene 22
4. Magmatism 25
5. Types of Metalliferous Mineral Deposits in Bolivia 27
5.1 "Bolivian-type" polymetallic veins 29
5.1.1 Tin porphyry deposits 31
• Llallagua 31
• Chorolque 33
5.1.2 Deposits associated with volcanic domes and/or subvolcanic stocks 35
• Cerro Rico de Potosí36
• Oruro 39
• Colquechaca 42
• Maragua 44
• Porco 45
• MallKu Khota 47
• Colavi District 48
• Tasna 49
• Tatasi 51
• Animas, Siete Suyos y Gran Chocaya District 53
• Esmoraca - Galán District 53
5.1.3 Deposits hosted in sedimentary rocks 55
• Huanuni 55
• Cnadón Antequera Polymetallic District 58
• Bolivar 60
• Avicaya 60
• San Vicente 61
• Monserrat 62
• Japo-Santa Fe-Morococala District 62
• Matilde 63
• Independencia District 63
5.1.4 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of the Bolivian-type Polymetallic veins 64
5.2 Pluton-associated polymetallic vein deposits 66
• Cacabel-Munecas province 66
• Chacaltaya-Huayna Potosí Tin District 70
• Kellhuani deposit 71
• La Solución deposit 72
• Illimani District 72
• Himalaya deposit 73
• Rosario de Araca-Laram cot a Province 74
• La Chojlla deposit 76
• Chambillaya deposit 78
• Colquiri District 79
5.2.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of the Pluton-associated
polymetallic vein deposits 83
5.3 Orogenic gold (iantimony) deposits 84
5.3.1 Slate belt-hosted Orogenic gold (±antimony) ore deposits 84
• Yani-Aucapata Gold District 87
• Apolobamba Gold District 88
• Oruro-Challapata Gold District 90
• San Bernardino deposit 92
• Iroco (Kori Chaka) deposit 94
• Vintoprospect 95
• Amayapampa gold-antimony District & prospect 96
• Cajuata District 96
• Los Machos deposit 97
• Cocapata District 97
• El Molino-Choquecamata prospect 98
• Carma prospect 98
• Caracota District 99
• Chilcobija-Candelaria Antimony District 102
5.3.1.1 Characteristics of and Conceptual Model for slate belt-hosted orogenic gold (±antimony) deposits (Fig. 5.30) 104
5.3.2 BIF-hosted and fault-related orogenic gold prospects/deposits 106
5.3.2.1 BIF-hosted orogenic gold 106
• Vuquio Norte 106
5.3.2.1.1 Characteristics of BIF-hosted orogenic gold deposits 107
5.3.2.2 Fault-related orogenic gold 107
• San Simon deposit 108
5.3.2.2.1 Characteristics of fault-related orogenic gold deposits 109
5.4 Epithermal Deposits 110
5.4.1 Intermediate Sulfidation Epithermal deposits 112
• Merengúela Polymetallic District 112
• Orkho Pina prospect 112
• Carangas Silver District 113
• Salinas de Garci-Mendo^a District 115
• Pulacayo deposit 116
• San Cristóbal deposit 118
• San Antonio de Lípez District 120
• Jaquegua prospect 123
5.4.2 High Sulfidation Epithermal deposits 125
• Laurani deposit 125
• La Española prospect 126
5.4.3 Transitional deposits 128
Kori Kollo 128
• Upeña-Lamosa prospect 130
5.4.4 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of the Epithermal ore deposits 133
5.5 Red-bed copper 136
• Coro coro deposit 136
• Cuprita deposit 137
• Red-bed copper in the Lipez region 138
5.5.1 Characteristics of the red-bed copper deposits 138
5.6 Sedimentary rock-hosted zinc-lead (silver) veins 138
5.6.1 Western Corridor 139
• Toropalca-Cornaca District 139
• Tupiza-Suipacha District 139
• Mojo-Villazón District 139
5.6.2 Eastern Corridor 139
• San Lucas District 139
• Huara Huara District 140
5.6.3 Characteristics of the sedimentary rock-hosted zinc-lead (silver) veins 140
5.7 Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) deposits 141
• Don Mario 142
5.7.1 Characteristics of the Iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits 145
5.8 Sedimentary Exhalative (SEDEX) Pb-Zn prospects 146
• Tucavaca Basin 146
5.8.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of the Sedimentary
Exhalative “SEDEX” Pb-Zn prospects 148
5.9 Banded Iron Formation (BIF) hosted iron ores 148
• ElMutun 149
5.9.1 Characteristics of Banded Iron Formation (BIF) hosted iron ores 150
5.10 Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide (VMS) Cu-Zn-Au-(Pb) deposits 151
• Miguela 152
5.10.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of Volcanogenic
Massive Sulfide (VMS) Cu-Zn-Au-(Pb) deposits 153
5.11 Ultramafic and mafic intrusion-related Ni and PGE deposits 156
• Rincon del Tigre Complex 156
5.11.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of Ultramafic and Mafic Intrusion-related Ni and PGE deposits 159
5.12 Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) deposits 160
• The Tucavaca Basin, Precambrian 161
• The Cuevo Basin, Subandean 161
5.12.1 Characteristics and Conceptual Model of Mississippi Valley-Type (MVT) deposits 162
5.13 Placer gold deposits 164
Alluvial gold deposits 164
5.13.1 Characteristics of alluvial gold deposits 165
Fluvioglacial gold deposits 165
5.14 Other types of deposit 167
5.14.1 Lovozero-type rare metal (Nb, Ta and REE) deposits 167
5.14.2 Evaporitic deposits 167
5.14.3 Precious and Semi-precious stone deposits 167
5.14.4 Pegmatite deposits 168
5.14.5 Sulfur deposits 168
6. General Metallogeny 171
6.1 Precambrian Shield 171
6.1.1 The Paraguá Craton Auro-manganesiferous Belt171
6.1.2 The Sunsás Polymetallic Belt171
6.1.3 The Mutun-Tucavaca Ferro-manganesiferous Belt 172
6.2 The Chaco-Beni Plains173
6.2.1 The Amazon Gold Basin 173
6.3 The Central Andes173
6.3.1 The Polymetallic Belt of the Altiplano and Western Cordillera 174
6.3.2 The Tin Belt175
6.3.3 The Gold-antimony Belt 176
6.3.4 The Lead-Zinc Belt178
7. Metalliferous resources of Bolivia 181
7.1 Western Cordillera 181
7.2 Altiplano184
7.2.1 Northern and Central Altiplano 184
7.2.2 Southern Altiplano 185
7.3 Eastern Cordillera 185
7.3.1 Northern Segment 186
7.3.2 Central Segment186
7.3.3 Southern Segment187
7.4 Subandean 18"
7.5 The Chaco-Beni Plains18£
7.6 Precambrian Shield18Í
7.7 Mineral Production, Mining Projects and Estimate of the Metalliferous Resources in
Bolivia 19.
7.8 Trends in prices of the main metals that Bolivia produces 20
7.8.1 Productions vs. Prices of main metals produced in Bolivia between 1980-200820-
8. Synopsis 21
8.1 Distribution of provinces, districts, and ore deposits in Bolivia 211
8.2 Discovery of ore deposits 211
8.3 Historical Framework 212
8.4 Deposit Types 212
8.5 Metalliferous Resource Potential of Bolivia 213
9. References 215