Walter Lorenz; Werner Gwosdz:

Manual on the Geological-technical Assessment of Mineral Construction Materials

2003. VI, 498 pages, 103 figures, 301 tables, 21x30cm, 1600 g
Language: English

(Sonderhefte Reihe H - Geol. Jahrb., Heft 15)

ISBN 978-3-510-95917-4, paperback, price: 49.80 €

in stock and ready to ship

Order form

BibTeX file


raw material construction assessment utilisation Rohstoff Tagebau Bewertung Anwendung


Synopsis top ↑

Exploration, production and utilisation of construction raw materials play a key role in the development of all countries whether industrial or developing. Construction raw materials are used for the development and expansion of infrastructure in the broadest sense of the word, involving the creation of housing and transport connections, and the numerous products which simplify our daily lives.

Geologists, construction engineers, regional planners, etc., in developing countries are increasingly frequently confronted with the need to evaluate the usability and quality of occurrences and deposits of construction raw materials. However, a lack of geological and technical expertise in many developing and emerging countries often prevents the utilisation of local mineral raw materials for use in construction.

In an effort to support engineers and planners in making decisions, the most important assessment criteria have been compiled in this "manual" in a user-oriented and intuitive way.
The manual is intended to stimulate ideas in developing countries, to kick-start projects, and to initiate self-help.

Contents top ↑

1 Aggregates (gravel, sand and crushed rock)
1.1 Explanation of important terms
1.2 Deposit genesis
1.3 Applications
1.4 Substitutes, recycled construction material and secondary raw materials
1.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
1.5.1 General methods and testing methods
1.5.2 Physical and mechanical properties
1.5.3 Aggregates for unpaved and paved road construction1.5.3.1 Sub-base
(unbound) Sub-base (hydraulically and bituminous bound) Road surfaces (asphalt and concrete)
1.5.4 Aggregates for concrete (building construction, civil engineering)
1.5.5 Aggregates for screed, masonry and plaster mortar
1.5.6 Aggregates for lime-silica bricks, granulated slag brick and aerated
1.5.7 Ballast, gravel and sand in railway track construction
1.5.8 Rip-rap, drain and filter material, other
1.6 Evaluation of deposits
1.7 References
1.8 Norms, standards
1.9 Appendix
1.9.1 Glossary
1.9.2 Building properties of unconsolidated sediments
1.9.3 Suitability of unconsolidated sediments for construction purposes
1.9.4 Examples of the blending of aggregate mixtures from different mixed fractions
1.9.5 Application example for filter rule after TERZAGHI and DIN 18 035
2 Volcanic rocks and lightweight aggregates
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Classification, definition
2.1.2 References
2.2 Pumice, pumicite
2.2.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
2.2.2 Deposit genesis
2.2.3 End uses
2.2.4 Substitutes
2.2.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
2.2.6 References
2.3 Other volcanic ashes, slags and tuffitic rocks
2.3.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
2.3.2 Deposit genesis
2.3.3 End uses
2.3.4 Substitutes
2.3.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
2.3.6 References
2.4 Perlite
2.4.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
2.4.2 Deposit genesis
2.4.3 End uses
2.4.4 Substitutes
2.4.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
2.4.6 References
2.5 Basalt
2.5.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
2.5.2 Deposit genesis
2.5.3 End uses
2.5.4 Substitutes
2.5.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
2.5.6 References
2.6 Other volcanic rocks (phonolite, rhyolite, ignimbrite)
2.6.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
2.6.2 Deposit genesis
2.6.3 End uses
2.6.4 Substitute
2.6.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
2.6.6 References3 Dimension stone and roofing slate
3.1 Dimension stone
3.1.1 Definitions, systematics
3.1.2 End uses
3.1.3 Extraction, processing, end uses
3.1.4 Substitutes
3.1.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
3.1.6 References, standards
3.2 Roofing slate
3.2.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
3.2.2 Deposit genesis
3.2.3 Extraction and end uses
3.2.4 Substitutes
3.2.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
3.2.6 References, standards
4 Carbonate and sulphate rocks
4.1 Limestone
4.1.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
4.1.2 Deposit genesis
4.1.3 End uses
4.1.4 Substitutes
4.1.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
4.1.6 References
4.2 Dolomite
4.2.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
4.2.2 Deposit genesis
4.2.3 End uses
4.2.4 Substitutes
4.2.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
4.2.6 References
4.3 Magnesite
4.3.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
4.3.2 Deposit genesis
4.3.3 End uses
4.3.4 Substitutes
4.3.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
4.3.6 References
4.4 Gypsum and anhydrite
4.4.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
4.4.2 Deposit genesis
4.4.3 End uses
4.4.4 Substitutes
4.4.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
4.4.6 References
4.5 Barytes
4.5.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
4.5.2 Deposit genesis
4.5.3 End uses
4.5.4 Substitutes
4.5.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
4.5.6 References
5 Clay
5.1 Definition, systematics
5.2 Kaolin and kaolinitic clay
5.2.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
5.2.2 Deposit genesis
5.2.3 End uses
5.2.4 Substitutes
5.2.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
5.2.6 References
5.3 Refractory clay (fire clay, flint clay)
5.3.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
5.3.2 Deposit genesis
5.3.3 End uses
5.3.4 Substitutes
5.3.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
5.3.6 References
5.4 Halloysite
5.4.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
5.4.2 Deposit genesis
5.4.3 End uses
5.4.4 Substitutes
5.4.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
5.4.6 References
5.5 Allophane
5.5.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
5.5.2 Deposit genesis
5.5.3 End uses
5.5.4 References
5.6 Illite
5.6.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
5.6.2 Deposit genesis
5.6.3 End uses
5.6.4 Substitutes
5.6.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
5.6.6 References
5.7 Smectite (bentonite, montmorillonite)
5.7.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
5.7.2 Deposit genesis
5.7.3 End uses
5.7.4 Substitutes
5.7.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
5.7.6 References
5.8 Hormite (palygorskite, sepiolite)
5.8.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
5.8.2 Deposit genesis 5.8.3 End uses
5.8.4 Substitutes
5.8.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
5.8.6 References
5.9 Brick clay, loam, adobe
5.9.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
5.9.2 Deposit genesis
5.9.3 End uses
5.9.4 Substitutes
5.9.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
5.9.6 References
5.10 Expandable clay and slate
5.10.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
5.10.2 Deposit genesis
5.10.3 End uses
5.10.4 Substitutes
5.10.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
5.10.6 References
6 Silica raw material
6.1 Overview
6.1.1 Classification, definition
6.1.2 References
6.2 Quartz, cristobalite and opal
6.2.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
6.2.2 Deposit genesis
6.2.3 End uses
6.2.4 Substitutes
6.2.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
6.2.6 References
6.3 Silica sand, quartz gravel, quartzose sandstone and quartzite
6.3.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
6.3.2 Deposit genesis
6.3.3 End uses
6.3.4 Substitutes
6.3.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
6.3.6 References
6.4 Diatomite (kieselguhr)
6.4.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
6.4.2 Deposit genesis
6.4.3 End uses
6.4.4 Substitutes
6.4.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
6.4.6 References
6.5 Tripoli and siliceous earth
6.5.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
6.5.2 Deposit genesis
6.5.3 End uses
6.5.4 Substitutes
6.5.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
6.5.6 References
6.6 Chert (flint, silex)
6.6.1 Mineralogy, petrography, chemistry
6.6.2 Deposit genesis
6.6.3 End uses6.6.4 Substitutes
6.6.5 Raw material specifications (standard values)
6.6.6 References
7 Environmental protection
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Environmental minerals
7.3 Quarrying and environment8 Regional planning
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Environmental geology in land use planning
Annex 1 Size of deposits
Annex 2 Index
Annex 3 Diagram for drafting grain size-distribution curves
Annex 4 Table comparing the most common used international sieve sizes
Annex 5 Sliding logarithmic scale to accurately read off logarithmic figures

NULL top ↑

This manual introduces the geological-technical assessment of mineral construction materials. The requirements for the production of most important construction raw materials are covered (including sand, gravel, crushed rock, volcanic rock, dimension stone, roofing slate, carbonate and sulphate rocks, clays, silica raw materials). The publication hence describes the geological and industrial assessment criteria in a form suitable for the special conditions in developing countries.
In addition to technical/economic aspects, the manual also deals with aspects of utilisation of these materials and the needs of environmental and resource protection.