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Guidelines for the Compilation of Geological Maps

General Principles

Ed.: Carsten Schwarz; Lutz Katzschmann; Karl-Heinz Radzinski

2004. 135 pages, 16 figures, 6 tables, 17x24cm, 400 g
Language: English

(Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe G, Band G 12)

ISBN 978-3-510-95925-9, plastic cover, price: 28.00 €

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Keywords

geologicalmapsguidline geologischKartenRichtlinie

Contents

synopsis top ↑

These guidelines should be the framework reference for geological mapping and description of observations, as well as their presentation as analog maps, digital data sets, legends and Explanatory Notes. Although federal states are responsible for the compilation and publication of large scale geological maps, their Geological Surveys are concerned that the geological mapping should be prepared according to procedures that are as uniform as possible. At the same time, geological mapping techniques particular to a State or region remain unaffected. These guidelines should provide the necessary regulation of those working procedures, for which a standard and uniform application is both possible and scientifically acceptable throughout the Federal Republic. It is anticipated that these "GUIDELINES FOR THE COMPILATION OF GEOLOGICAL MAPS" will promote objective mapping procedures, and provide guidance in geological mapping to students, recently qualified geologists, as well as geologists working outside of the State Geological Surveys. These guidelines will have achieved their purpose if they are applied by all mapping geologists, and thereby contribute to a standard application of basic mapping principles.

Contents top ↑

Contents Preface and Objectives 9
1 Requirements and Products of Geological Mapping 11
1.1 Procedures endorsed by the State Geological Surveys
for geological mapping 12
2 Preparation for Geological Mapping Fieldwork 13
2.1 Compilation of available geological information 13
2.2 Preparation of the topographic map for the geological fieldwork 16
2.3 Equipment for the geological fieldwork 16
2.4 Notification of relevant authorities, companies and
private landowners 17
3 Fieldwork Procedures 19
3.1 Reconnaissance work 19
3.2 General field mapping procedures 19
3.3 Remarks on the description of outcrop geology 22
3.3.1 Basic data 22
3.3.2 Outcrop data 23
3.3.3 Data from individual geological features 24
3.4 Collecting samples 25
3.5 Field observation records 25
3.5.1 Field map sheet 26
3.5.2 Outcrop map 27
3.5.3 Field notebook, outcrop description forms, field PC system 27
3.5.4 Sample register and sample form sheets 27
3.5.5 Documentation required after completion of
geological fieldwork 28
3.6 Geological mapping in areas dominated by bedrock 29
3.7 Mapping areas of unconsolidated rocks 31
3.8 Mapping areas of Holocene coastal deposits 33
3.9 Mapping in alpine terrain 35
4 Presentation of the Results 37
4.1 Comparison of the attributes of analog and digital maps 38
4.2 Products of geological mapping visual publications 39
4.2.1 Geological base map 41
4.2.1.1 Principles of map presentation 41
4.2.1.2 Contents of the map 42
4.2.1.3 Drafting the geological map 47
4.2.1.3.1 General remarks 47
4.2.1.3.2 Reference values for the minimum size of
linear and planar map elements 50
4.2.1.3.3 Topographic base maps 52
4.2.1.4 Citation of the editions of geological maps 53
4.2.2 Solid geology maps 53
4.2.3 Geological cross-sections 55
4.2.4 Profile and thickness columns 58
4.2.4.1 Profile columns 58
4.2.4.2 Stratigraphic thickness columns 58
4.2.5 Geological spatial models 62
4.2.5.1 Block diagrams 62
4.2.5.2 Digital spatial models 62
4.2.6 Sequence profile maps 64
4.2.7 Lithofacies maps 66
4.2.8 Palaeogeographic maps 66
4.2.9 Structural maps 69
4.2.10 Contour maps 72
4.2.10.1 Thickness maps (isopach maps) 72
4.2.10.2 Depth contour maps 74
4.2.10.3 Other contour maps 74
4.2.11 Outcrop and drill hole maps 74
4.2.11.1 Outcrop maps 74
4.2.11.2 Drill hole location maps 76
4.2.12 Other thematic maps 76
4.2.13 Other information shown on the
map margins or on supplementary maps 76
4.2.14 Legends 77
4.3 Colours, patterns and lines for graphical presentation 82
4.3.1 General remarks 82
4.3.2 Linear features 83
4.3.3 Colours 83
4.3.4 Patterns 84
4.3.4.1 Pattern shapes 84
4.3.4.2 Pattern colours 85
4.3.4.3 Asymmetric linear patterns 85
4.3.4.4 Graphical symbols 85
4.3.4.5 Inscriptions for mapped areas 86
4.4 Products from the geological mapping text contributions 86
4.4.1 Explanatory Notes for the geological map 86
4.4.1.1 "Introduction" chapter 86
4.4.1.2 "Geological and Geographic Overview" chapter 87
4.4.1.3 "Rock and Stratigraphic Sequence" chapter 88
4.4.1.4 "Structure" chapter 89
4.4.1.5 "Geophysics" chapter 90
4.4.1.6 "Soils" chapter 90
4.4.1.7 "Hydrogeology" chapter 93
4.4.1.8 "Engineering Geology" chapter 94
4.4.1.9 "Resources" chapter 95
4.4.1.10 "Protected Geotopes" chapter 96
4.4.1.11 "Pre- and Early History" chapter 97
4.4.1.12 "Excursions" chapter 97
4.4.1.13 "Strata Description Lists" chapter 97
4.4.1.14 "Literature" chapter 98
4.4.1.15 Supplementary maps 98
4 4.1.16 Guidelines for citation the editions of the Explanatory Notes 99
4.4.2 Mapping reports 100
4.5 Databases 100
5 Archiving and Safekeeping of Data 102
5.1 Basic principles for the archiving of geological data 102
5.2 Archiving 103
5.3 Safekeeping 105
6 References 106
Appendices 1 4 117

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Geological mapping provides basic information on the geological structures and stratigraphy of an area. Maps are the most common form of representing complex geological data. This book contains guidelines for data acquisition and evaluation, as well as for the preparation of a geological map (analog and digital), the legend, and the Explanatory Notes. The guidelines were prepared to make sure the resulting geological maps will be uniform. They should of help beginning geologists in Geological Surveys, students, and geologists who are not employed by a Geological Survey to carry out their work in an efficient and targeted manner.