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Chemistry of Europe's Agricultural Soils, Part B

General Background Information and Further Analysis of the GEMAS Data Set

Ed.: Clemens Reimann; Manfred Birke; Alecos Demetriades; Peter Filzmoser; Patrick O'Connor

[Chemische Zusammensetzung der landwirtschaftlichen Böden Europas. Teil B: Allgemeine Hintergrundinformationen und weiterführende Auswertungen der GEMAS-Daten]

2014. 352 pages, 121 figures, 58 tables, 21x29cm, 1520 g
Language: English

(Geologisches Jahrbuch Reihe B, Band B 103)

ISBN 978-3-510-96847-3, bound, price: 78.00 €

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Keywords

soilssoil chemistrysoil mappingpedologyenvironmental chemistryagriculture

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

Part B of the GEMAS atlas provides a more detailed interpretation of the spatial distribution of selected elements (As, C, Cd, K, Th, U) at the European scale than was possible to provide in Part A, the geochemical atlas. To highlight the importance of scale this part also provides interpretations of the data set at a more local scale (Scandinavia and Ukraine). Possibilities for more-in-depth uses of the data set from assessing the impact of agriculture (carbon stock), through risk assessment to unravelling geological processes (loess distribution) are demonstrated. Several chapters cover the background information needed for the interpretation of a geochemical atlas (geology, soil formation, mineral deposits). Finally, data on the regional distribution of some rarely analysed elements (B, Cl, F) at the European scale are pre- sented, based on the old FOREGS soil samples. A discussion of element concentrations, as measured in a very weak extraction (MMI®), helps to understand the geochemical processes governing the distribution of elements at the European scale, and allows us to better detect the impact of human activities on European agricultural soil. Part B also provides Tables summarising European legislation with regard to soil, and the key statistical parameters for the GEMAS samples.

The study consists of two parts: Part A: Methodology and Interpretation of the GEMAS Data Set and Part B [this publication]; also available as a 2 Part set: Chemistry of Europe's Agricultural Soils Part A + B set

Inhaltsbeschreibung top ↑

Der Teil B des GEMAS-Atlasses präsentiert für ausgewählte Elemente (As, C, Cd, K, Th, U) eine mehr in die Tiefe gehende Interpretation der Ergebnisse. Um die Bedeutung des gewählten Maßstabes für eine geochemische Kartierung zu veranschaulichen, wurden die Daten von Skandinavien und der Ukraine noch einmal gesondert ausgewertet. Die Daten eines geochemischen Atlasses können natürlich auch für weitergehende wissenschaftliche Studien eingesetzt werden, wie z. B. zur Untersuchung der Bedeutung der Landwirtschaft und des Klimas für den Kohlenstoffhaushalt der Böden, für die Risikobewertung der in den Böden gemessenen Metallgehalte für Bodenorganismen oder für geologische Fragestellungen, wie die räumliche Verbreitung von Loessböden in Europa. Mehrere Kapitel decken die für die Interpretation eines geochemischen Atlasses benötigten Hintergrundinformationen ab (Geologie, Bodenbildung, Mineralvorkommen). Einige Elemente (B, Cl, F) bereiten auch heute noch analytische Schwierigkeiten, ihre Gehalte in Böden werden daher selten gemessen; ein Kapitel stellt ihre Verteilung in europäischen Bodenproben aus dem FOREGS-Projekt vor. Die gesonderte Diskussion der Ergebnisse eines sehr schwachen Probenauszuges (MMI® – mobile metal ion extraction) ermöglicht die Identifikation anthropogener Einflüsse auf die Böden und liefert darüber hinaus interessante Hinweise für die Mineralexploration. Der Teil B des GEMAS-Atlasses stellt außerdem Tabellen mit den wichtigsten europäischen Bodengrenzwerten sowie statistische Übersichtstabellen der Analysenergebnisse zur Verfügung. Insgesamt zeigt der Teil B exemplarisch an Hand einiger weniger Beispiele auf, dass die Daten des GEMAS-Atlasses multivalent genutzt werden können.

Contents top ↑

General Background Information 19
1 A Short Guide to Soil Formation and the Soils of Europe 21
(Edith Haslinger, Clemens Reimann & Manfred Birke)
1.1 Introduction 21
1.2 Soil – what is it? 21
1.3 Soil – an eco-friendly chemical factory 27
1.4 Does soil always stay the same? 30
1.5 How many soil types are there? 36
1.6 Use of GEMAS data 42
2 Geology of Europe 47
(Fabian Jähne)
2.1 Introduction 47
2.2 The European plate tectonic evolution
in the Phanerozoic 49
2.3 The crustal framework of Europe – distribution of terranes and tectonic plates 50
2.4 Igneous rocks of Europe 56
2.5 Sedimentary basin evolution in Europe from the Palaeozoic to the Caenozoic 61
2.6 Major faults and fracture zones of Europe 64
2.7 Impact structures of Europe 66
2.8 Quaternary development of Europe 69
3 Mineral Deposits of Europe 71
(Alecos Demetriades & Clemens Reimann)
3.1 Introduction 71
3.2 Mineral deposit and mineralisation maps 71
Applied Geochemistry of Selected Elements 79
4 Arsenic Anomalies in European Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil 81
(Timo Tarvainen, Manfred Birke, Clemens Reimann,
Michal Poňavič & Stefano Albanese)
4.1 Introduction 81
4.2 Materials and methods 81
4.3 Results 82
4.4 Discussion 83
4.5 Conclusions 88
5 Distribution of Cadmium in European Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil 89
(Manfred Birke, Clemens Reimann, Uwe Rauch, Benedetto De Vivo,
Josip Halamić, Volodymyr Klos, Mateja Gosar & Anna Ladenberger)
5.1 Introduction 89
5.2 Occurrence and sources 90
5.3 Production and use 92
5.4 Vegetation and aquatic biota 93
5.5 Health implications and ecotoxicology 93
5.6 Survey area 94
5.7 Results 94
5.8 Discussion 108
5.9 Conclusions 114
6 Carbon Concentrations in European Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil 117
(Rainer Baritz, Vibeke Ernstsen & Dietmar Zirlewagen)
6.1 Introduction 117
6.2 Materials and methods 118
6.3 Results 122
6.4 Discussion 127
6.5 Conclusions 128
7 Distribution of Selenium in European Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil 131
(Michal Poňavič & Andreas Scheib)
7.1 Introduction 131
7.2 Selenium 131
7.3 Results 135
7.4 Discussion 138
7.5 Conclusions 144
8 Natural Radioactive Elements Uranium, Thorium and Potassium in European Agricultural and Grazing Land Soil 145
(Domenico Cicchella, Stefano Albanese, Manfred Birke,
Benedetto De Vivo, Walter De Vos, Enrico Dinelli, Annamaria Lima,
Patrick J. O’Connor, Ignace Salpeteur & Timo Tarvainen)
8.1 Introduction 145
8.2 Geochemical features 146
8.3 Health effects 147
8.4 Uses 148
8.5 Results and discussion 150
8.6 Conclusions 156
9 Distribution of Aeolian Deposits in Europe and Their Influence on Soil Geochemistry 161
(Andreas Scheib)
9.1 Introduction 161
9.2 Aeolian deposits in Europe 161
9.3 Influence of aeolian deposits on soil geochemistry 163
9.4 Conclusions 168
10 Distribution of Boron, Chlorine and Fluorine in European Topsoil and Subsoil
(based on samples from the FOREGS project) 169

(Reijo Salminen, Manfred Birke, Clemens Reimann,
Virgilija Gregorauskiene & Xueqiu Wang)
10.1 Introduction 169
10.2 Methods 172
10.3 Results 174
10.4 Discussion 176
10.5 Conclusions 180
10.6 Mobility and Risk Assessment of Metals 181
11 Prediction of Metal and Metalloid Partitioning Coefficients (Kd) in Soil Using Mid-Infrared Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy 183
Les J. Janik, Sean Forrester, Jason K. Kirby, Michael J. McLaughlin,
Jose M. Soriano-Disla & Clemens Reimann)
11.1 Introduction 183
11.2 Partial-least-squares models 184
11.3 Prediction of Kd values from DRIFT+pH models 185
11.4 Conclusions 188
12 Use of Monitoring Data for Risk Assessment of Metals in Soil under the European REACH Regulation 189
(Koen Oorts & Ilse Schoeters)
12.1 Introduction 189
12.2 Materials and methods 191
12.3 Results 194
12.4 Discussion 199
12.5 Conclusions 202
13 Mobile Metal Ion Analysis of European Agricultural Soil 203
(Alan Mann, Clemens Reimann, Patrice de Caritat & Nicholas Turner)
13.1 Introduction 203
13.2 Analysis and quality control 204
13.3 Results 205
13.4 Comparison of results with other data sets 220
13.5 Discussion and conclusions 227
Regional Interpretation of GEMAS Data 233
14 Elemental Patterns in Agricultural and Grazing
Land Soil in Norway, Finland and Sweden:
What Have We Learned from Continental-Scale Mapping? 235

(Anna Ladenberger, Jo Uhlbäck, Madelen Andersson, Clemens Reimann,
Timo Tarvainen, George Morris, Martiya Sadeghi, Mikael Eklund &
Peter Filzmoser)
14.1 Introduction 235
14.2 Topography and climate 235
14.3 Geology 236
14.4 Human impact on agricultural land 239
14.5 Sampling and methodology 240
14.6 Discussion 240
14.7 Conclusions 251
15 Geochemical Characteristics of Ukrainian Soil Using Landscape-Geochemical Regionalisation Based on the GEMAS Data 253
(Volodymyr Klos, Manfred Birke, Grygorii Akinfiev & Yulia Amashukeli)
15.1 Introduction 253
15.2 Materials and methods 254
15.3 Results and discussion 256
15.4 Conclusions 270
References 273
Acronyms and Abbreviations 295
Appendices 297
A Soil Guideline Values (SGVs) for Agricultural
and Grazing Land Soil in Different European Countries 299

B GEMAS Project: Statistical Parameters for All of Europe
(Ap and Gr samples) 307

C GEMAS Project: Statistical Parameters of Northern
and Southern Europe (Ap samples) 327