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Javier Etayo; Leopoldo Garcia Sancho:

Hongos liquenícolas del Sur de Sudamérica, especialmente de Isla Navarino (Chile)

2008. 302 pages, 132 figures, 14x23cm, 560 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Band 98)

ISBN 978-3-443-58077-3, paperback, price: 74.00 €

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Keywords

ascosporelichenfung.mycologyAskosporeFlechtePilzMykologie

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

The volume presents a detailed and illustrated (many high quality microcraphs and drawings) study of lichenicolous fungi collected in Isla Navarino (S Chile) and surroundings has resulted in 696 parasited lichen samples, representing 240 taxa of lichenicolous fungi. In this paper 189 species are reported. Six new genera are described: Atronectria gen. nov., similar to Pronectria but with brown, K+ blackish green ascomata; Macrographa gen. nov., with large ascomata and three septate spores of unknown affinities; Pseudostigmidium gen. nov., related to Stigmidium, but generally with I+ red hymenium and 3-septate spores, with five species living on Pseudocyphellaria and Nephroma; Sarcoexcipula gen. nov. of thick and complex perithecial wall and large and septate ascospores; Umbilithecium gen. nov., Arthonia similar genus with diferent hymenial structure and simples spores and Umushamyces gen. nov. similar in habitus to Arthonia but with Biatora or Bacidia-type asci.

60 species are described as news: Arthonia epifarinosa sp. nov. on Pannaria farinosa; Arthonia marginalis sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Arthonia xanthoparmeliarum sp. nov. on Xanthoparmelia sp.; Atronectria magellanica sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria coriifolia and Nephroma antarcticum; Bachmanniomyces pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria hillii; Capronia leopoldiana sp. nov. on Leptogium menziesii and Leptogium sp.; >Capronia magellanica sp. nov. on Fuscopannaria magellanica; Carbonea neuropogonis sp. nov. on Usnea; Chalara pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria faveolata; Corticifraga pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Corticiruptor corallinus sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria crocata; Dactylospora inconspicua sp. nov. on Menegazzia cincinnata; Diederimyces microsporus sp. nov. on Coccotrema and Pertusaria; Endococcus pallidosporus sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria lechleri; Endococcus parentus sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Endococcus parmeliarum sp. nov. on Parmelia gr. saxatilis and perhaps Usnea; Endococcus pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria coriifolia; Leptosphaeria protousneae sp. nov. on Protousnea sp.; Lichenochora acutispora sp. nov. on Fuscopannaria magellanica; Lichenopeltella sclerenchymatica sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria vaccina; Macrographa antarctica sp. nov. on Nephroma antarcticum; Merismatium coccotremicola sp. nov. on Coccotrema cucurbitula and perhaps Cladonia; Microsphaeropsis lichenicola sp. nov. on Pannaria and Hypotrachyna; Minutoexcipula beaglei sp. nov. on Lecanora sp. (sterile); Muellerella antarctica sp. nov. on Hypogymnia antarctica and Pannoparmelia; Nanostictis nephromatis sp. nov. on Nephroma antarcticum; Nectriopsis silvaustralis sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria vaccina; Neobarya darwiniana sp. nov. on Nephroma antarcticum; Niesslia yaganae sp. nov. on Nephroma antarcticum; Odontotrema navarinoi sp. nov. probably on a terricolous lichen: Micarea magellanica; Phaeosporobolus minutus sp. nov. on Coccotrema and Pertusaria; Phoma rozziana sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria guillemini; Plectocarpon gayanum sp. nov. on cf. Siphula; Polycoccum longisporum sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii, Ph. guilleminii, Nephroma antarcticum and Pannaria sp.; Pronectria fragmospora sp. nov. on Usnea; Pronectria invisibilis sp. nov. on Nephroma antarcticum; Pronectria occulta sp. nov. on Usnea; Protothelenella pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Pseudostigmidium biseptatum sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Pseudostigmidium confusum sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria glabra; Pseudostigmidium disparatum sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria endochrysa and Ps. vaccina; Pseudostigmidium fumosum sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria lechleri and Ps. hillii; Rhagadostoma pannariae sp. nov. on Pannaria farinosa and P. pallida; Sarcoexcipula pannariae sp. nov. on Pannaria; Sclerococcum areolatum sp. nov. on Xylographa?; Scoliciosporum pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria vaccina and Ps. coriifolia; Skyttea violacea sp. nov. on Tephromela sp. (sorediate); Sphaerellothecium pannariacearum sp. nov. on thallus of Pannaria farinosa and P. pallida, Stigmidium disconephromeum sp. nov. on the ascomatal disc of Nephroma antarcticum; Stigmidium spegazzinii sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Taeniolella pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria hillii; Toninia ualae sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria coriifolia and Nephroma antarticum; Trichonectria australis sp. nov. on Usnea and Menegazzia; Umbilithecium pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria crocata; Umushamyces kuturnum sp. nov. on Coccotrema cucurbitula; Unguiculariopsis hispidula sp. nov. on Psoroma hispidulum; Unguiculariopsis macrocarpa sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria crocata; Xenonectriella aurantiaca sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria vaccina; Xenonectriella humilis sp. nov. on Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii and Ps. faveolata and Xenonectriella rosea sp. nov. on corticolous species of Pannaria, Parmeliella and Psoroma. Furthermore, the following new combinations are proposed: Niesslia peltigericola (D.Hawksw.) Etayo [= Wentiomyces peltigericola]; Niesslia tatjanae (Kondratyuk) Etayo [Wentiomyces tatjanae]; Opegrapha reactiva (Alstrup & D.Hawksw.) Etayo & Diederich [= Kalaallia reactiva]; Pseudostigmidium nephromiarium (Lindsay) Etayo [= Microthelia nephromiaria]; Scoliciosporum albidulum (Willey in Tuck.) Etayo [= Biatora albidula]; Stigmidium alectoriae (Lindsay) Etayo [= Microthelia alectoriae] y Xenonectriella leptaleoides (Etayo) Etayo [= Pronectria leptaleoides]. Kalaallia Alstrup & D. Hawksw. is proposed as a synonym of Opegrapha; Arthonia minuta is proposed as a new synonym of A. muscigena, and Scutula nephromatis a species newly combined in Etayo & Rosato (2008), is described. Morphological, taxonomical, ecological and chorological information is provided for many species when necessary. This work enlarges the area of distribution of many of these species to the southern hemisphere, South America, Argentina or Chile.

Resumen top ↑

El estudio intensivo de los hongos liquenícolas recolectados en Isla Navarino ha dado como resultado el estudio de 696 muestras parasitadas. De ellas se han llegado a reconocer 240 taxones de hongos liquenícolas diferentes, de los que en este trabajo señalamos 189. Se describen los siguientes seis géneros nuevos Atronectria gen. nov., género similar a Pronectria pero de ascomas pardos y pared K+ pardo verdosa; Macrographa gen. nov., hongo liquenícola de grandes ascomas, esporas triseptadas y afinidades desconocidas; Pseudostigmidium gen. nov., relacionado con Stigmidium pero con himenio generalmente I+ rojo y esporas triseptadas, con cinco especies que viven sobre Pseudocyphellaria y Nephroma; Sarcoexcipula gen. nov. con peritecios de pared gruesa y compleja, así como grandes esporas septadas; Umbilithecium gen. nov., similar a Arthonia pero de estructura himenial diferente y esporas simples y Umushamyces gen. nov. de aspecto similar a Arthonia pero con ascos de tipo Biatora o Bacidia.

60 especies se describen como nuevas: Arthonia epifarinosa sp. nov. en Pannaria farinosa; Arthonia marginalis sp. nov. sobre Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Arthonia xanthoparmeliarum sp. nov. sobre Xanthoparmelia sp.; Atronectria magellanica sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria coriifolia y Nephroma antarcticum; Bachmanniomyces pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria hillii; Capronia leopoldiana sp. nov. sobre Leptogium menziesii y Leptogium sp.; Capronia magellanica sp. nov. sobre Fuscopannaria magellanica; Carbonea neuropogonis sp. nov. en Usnea; Chalara pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. sobre Pseudocyphellaria faveolata; Corticifraga pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Corticiruptor corallinus sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria crocata; Dactylospora inconspicua sp. nov. sobre Menegazzia cincinnata; Diederimyces microsporus sp. nov. sobre Coccotrema y Pertusaria; Endococcus pallidosporus sp. nov. sobre Pseudocyphellaria lechleri; Endococcus parentus sp. nov. sobre Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Endococcus parmeliarum sp. nov. en Parmelia gr. saxatilis y quizás también Usnea; Endococcus pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. sobre Pseudocyphellaria coriifolia; Leptosphaeria protousneae sp. nov. en Protousnea sp.; Lichenochora acutispora sp. nov. sobre Fuscopannaria magellanica; Lichenopeltella sclerenchymatica sp. nov. sobre Ps. vaccina; Macrographa antarctica sp. nov. sobre Nephroma antarcticum; Merismatium coccotremicola sp. nov. en Coccotrema cucurbitula y quizás también Cladonia; Microsphaeropsis lichenicola sp. nov. en Pannaria e Hypotrachyna; Minutoexcipula beaglei sp. nov. en Lecanora sp. (estéril, sorediada); Muellerella antarctica sp. nov. en Hypogymnia antarctica y Pannoparmelia; Nanostictis nephromatis sp. nov. en Nephroma antarcticum; Nectriopsis silvaustralis sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria vaccina; Neobarya darwiniana sp. nov. en Nephroma antarcticum; Niesslia yaganae sp. nov. en Nephroma antarcticum; Odontotrema navarinoi sp. nov. probablemente sobre un liquen terrícola sim. Micarea magellanica; Phaeosporobolus minutus sp. nov. en Coccotrema y Pertusaria; Phoma rozziana sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria guillemini; Plectocarpon gayanum sp. nov. en cf. Siphula; Polycoccum longisporum sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii, Ph. guilleminii, Nephroma antarcticum y Pannaria sp.; Pronectria fragmospora sp. nov. en Usnea; Pronectria invisibilis sp. nov. en Nephroma antarcticum; Pronectria occulta sp. nov. en Usnea; Protothelenella pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Pseudostigmidium biseptatum sp. nov. sobre Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Pseudostigmidium confusum sp. nov. sobre Pseudocyphellaria glabra; Pseudostigmidium disparatum sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria endochrysa y Ps. vaccina; Pseudostigmidium fumosum sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria lechleri y Ps. hillii; Rhagadostoma pannariae sp. nov. en Pannaria farinosa; Sarcoexcipula pannariae sp. nov. en Pannaria; Sclerococcum areolatum sp. nov. sobre Xylographa?; Scoliciosporum pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria vaccina y Ps. coriifolia; Skyttea violacea sp. nov. en Tephromela sp. (sorediada); Sphaerellothecium pannariacearum sp. nov. en talo de Pannaria farinosa y P. pallida, Stigmidium disconephromeum sp. nov. en el disco de Nephroma antarcticum; Stigmidium spegazzinii sp. nov. sobre Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii; Taeniolella pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria hillii; Toninia ualae sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria coriifolia y Nephroma antarticum; Trichonectria australis sp. nov. sobre Usnea y Menegazzia; Umbilithecium pseudocyphellariae sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria crocata; Umushamyces kuturnum sp. nov. en Coccotrema cucurbitula; Unguiculariopsis hispidula sp. nov. sobre Psoroma hispidulum; Unguiculariopsis macrocarpa sp. nov. sobre Pseudocyphellaria crocata; X. aurantiaca sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria vaccina; Xenonectriella humilis sp. nov. en Pseudocyphellaria freycinetii y Ps. faveolata y Xenonectriella rosea sp. nov. en especies de Pannaria, Parmeliella y Psoroma (corticícolas). Asimismo se proponen las siguientes nuevas combinaciones: Niesslia peltigericola (D.Hawksw.) Etayo [= Wentiomyces peltigericola]; Niesslia tatjanae (Kondratyuk) Etayo [Wentiomyces tatjanae]; Opegrapha reactiva (Alstrup & D.Hawksw.) Etayo & Diederich [= Kalaallia reactiva]; Pseudostigmidium nephromiarium (Lindsay) Etayo [= Microthelia nephromiaria]; Scoliciosporum albidulum (Willey in Tuck.) Etayo [= Biatora albidula]; Stigmidium alectoriae (Lindsay) Etayo [= Microthelia alectoriae] y Xenonectriella leptaleoides (Etayo) Etayo [= Pronectria leptaleoides]. El género Kalaallia Alstrup & D. Hawksw. pasa a ser un sinónimo de Opegrapha; Arthonia minuta se propone como nuevo sinónimo de A. muscigena y se describe Scutula nephromatis, especie que fue recombinada en Etayo & Rosato (2008). De los hongos tratados se procura dar información morfológica, taxonómica, ecológica y corológica en el caso que consideramos necesario. Para muchos de ellos se amplía su distribución al Hemisferio Sur, Sudamérica, Argentina o Chile.

Review: International Lichenological Newsletter 42 (1) top ↑

According to the 9th edition of the Dictionary of Fungi (2001) about 300 genera and 1000 species of lichenicolous fungi were recognized at that time. Unfortunately the 10th edition (2008) only repeats these figures which have to be higher if the basic estimation is correct. The difficulties with updating these figures become very clear with publications like this new volume in the Bibliotheca Lichenologica series. From a comparably small study area, the authors found 696 parasitized lichen samples, representing 240 taxa of lichenicolous fungi. In the present volume, 189 species of them are reported, 60 of which are described as new to science. Comparable figures are available also from a previous study by Javier Etayo in Colombia (Bibliotheca Lichenologica 84, 2002).

The field work for the present study was undertaken during January and February 2005 in southern Chile and Argentina, but mainly on the Island of Navarino (Chile). After an introduction, the descriptions of all the new taxa and a list of other records (all of which, needless to say, are new to the area) fill the main part of the book. All the new taxa are illustrated by drawings and/or photographs. Six new genera are proposed here: Atronectria Etayo, Macrographa Etayo, Pseudostigmidium Etayo, Sarcoexcipula Etayo, Umbilithecium Etayo and Umushamyces Etayo. Furthermore 7 new combinations are made and the genus Kalaallia is proposed as a synonym of Opegrapha. The new species are described in the genera Arthonia (3), Bachmanniomyces, Capronia (2), Carbonea, Chalara, Corticifraga, Corticiruptor, Dactylospora, Diederimyces, Endococcus (4), Leptosphaeria, Lichenochora, Lichenopeltella, Merismatium, Microsphaeropsis, Minutoexcipula, Muellerella, Nanostictis, Nectriopsis, Neobarya, Niesslia, Odontotrema, Phaeosporobolus, Phoma, Plectocarpon, Polycoccum, Pronectria (3), Protothelenella, Pseudostigmidium (4), Rhagadostoma, Sclerococcum, Scoliciosporum, Skyttea, Sphaerellothecium, Stigmidium (2), Taeniolella, Toninia, Trichonectria, Unguiculariopsis (2), Xenonectriella (3) and the remaining in the 5 new genera.

In the introduction the authors discuss some problems of co-evolution of lichens and lichenicolous fungi, and especially the various hypotheses for the particular species-richness of Peltigerales. For the single host Nephroma antarcticum they report 26 lichenicolous fungi, 11 of which are newly described. Taking into account the entiredistribution range of the host, they estimate over 30 lichenicolous fungi for this unique host.

This volume provides a major step forward for the study of lichenicolous fungi in general and for the non-tropical parts of the southern hemisphere in particular. The huge number of taxonomic novelties makes it a must for all serious taxonomists of lichenicolous fungi.

The Editor

International Lichenological Newsletter 42 (1)

Review: Bibliography of Systematic Mycology, 12(7), April 2009 top ↑

This is the second major contribution to the subject of lichenicolous fungi of South America by the senior author, and the present work surpasses by far his previous one [Etayo (2002); see David (2004)] in Colombia – in number of species, if not in quality – with 189 taxa treated here, versus the 104 species included in the latter work. The authors also indicate in the summary that they had collected even more species (240 taxa) than those included in the work, which somewhat contradicts Etayo’s (2002) expectation that the group is highly diverse in tropical zones.

The contents of this monograph cover two main areas of research in the group: ‘floristics’ (including biogeographical and ecological information) and taxonomy. The extensive (20 pp.) introduction, which discusses the plant and lichen vegetation of the area and the relationships and specificity between the fungi and their lichen hosts, is also followed up in the final six pages of the book with a complete list of the lichens and their associated fungi. Not surprisingly, it is again the lichens with cyanobacteria as photobionts (e.g. Nephroma and Pseudocyphellaria) that host the highest number of lichenicolous fungi in the area. Interestingly, and despite that some of the hosts are known from other areas in the southern hemisphere, the number of taxonomic novelties is also high.

The catalogue, or taxonomic part of the monograph, is the bulk of the publication, extending to well over 200 pp. Here the 189 taxa are listed alphabetically according to genera, and each species entry consists of a description (brief if the taxon is known from elsewhere), with locality and chorological information, and a few keys. There are 60 taxonomic novelties in the text and for those, in addition to the Latin description, the authors supply a detailed diagnosis and high quality illustrations (both photos and ink drawings). Of the taxonomic novelties, the following six are also new genera: Atronectria, Macrographa, Pseudostigmidium, Sarcoexcipula, Umbilithecium and Umushamyces; all but Pseudostigmidium are monotypic. Nevertheless, the selection of Pseudostigmidium nephromiarium (Linds.) Etayo [as ‘(Speg.) Etayo’, p. 193, cf. p. 204] as the type of that genus is unfortunate, since it is based on the illegitimate name Microthelia nephromiaria Linds. (1869). According to Hawksworth (1985), who discussed all the species epithets included in the genus Microthelia, Lindsay considered M. nephromiaria to be conspecific with Lecidea alectoriae Linds. (1859), merging them both in a single type. Thus, the combination M. nephromiaria becomes superfluous (Art. 52.1) as, according to Art. 7.5, it is typified by the type of Lecidea alectoriae. Hawksworth (loc. cit.) mentioned briefly the latter species as having hyaline ascospores and therefore being unrelated to the other species treated in his monograph, and of uncertain generic position. However, Etayo combines the latter [cited as ‘Microthelia’] into Stigmidium [p. 236], despite being aware that Lindsay (1869) ‘[retracted from the binomial, … for the presence of perithecia’], yet goes on to claim, ‘[I synonymise Microthelia alectoriae with M. nephromiaria … see Pseudostigmidium nephromiarium …]’. Sadly, this lapse could have been avoided easily had the junior author and David Hawksworth, as colleagues in the same department, discussed the matter further. This major contribution from Hawksworth is not even listed in their extensive bibliography.

In addition to the two unfortunate nomenclatural novelties already discussed, five others are introduced, including the synonymy of the monotypic genus Kalaallia Alstrup & D. Hawksw. (1990) with Opegrapha; Kalaallia reactiva is thus combined into Opegrapha, despite the presence of perithecia.

A minor disappointment is the basic English abstract, which I think the authors could have extended for those not understanding Spanish; failing that, the English-speaking editors should have checked it for correctness. However, and despite the above misgivings, the work has tremendous scope not only for those studying lichenised and non-lichenised fungi from South America, but for those based in temperate regions of the southern – and even northern – hemispheres. The authors, and the editors of the series, are to be congratulated for the quality of the illustrations and the formatting of the text.

B. Aguirre-Hudson

Bibliography of Systematic Mycology, 12(7), April 2009

Review: MYCOTAXON vol. 110, 2009 top ↑

South America is still relatively unexplored for lichens and lichenicolous fungi. It has become in recent years more and more attractive to lichenologists desiring to discover new species, explore the biodiversity of species in still well preserved areas of our natural heritage, or study climate change using lichens to elucidate what is happening in the Southern Hemisphere. This is especially true for European lichenologists who are saturated with well-explored European areas. Lichenicolous fungi are highly under-collected in this continent. The potential richness of lichenicolous fungi in South America is very high, and many new species and genera could be expected to be described in future. The current number of described lichenicolous fungi in the world is about 1700 species, but based on the rapidly increasing number described over recent decades, we can easy expect 3000 species to be reached in the near future. Therefore, it is not surprising that the lichenicolous fungi of this largely unexplored continent attracted Spanish lichenologist Javier Etayo. With every one of Etayo’s publications on lichenicolous fungi from South America, he substantially increases the number of known species in the world. In his monograph on lichenicolous fungi of Colombia (Bibliotheca Lichenologica 84: 1-154, 2002; see Mycotaxon 87: 500-501, 2003), he described 52 species of the 104 species identified (every second one was new for science!) and even noted that 47 further taxa could not be described because of insufficient material or being in poor condition. It is not surprising that the current monograph published with co-author Leopoldo García Sancho on lichenicolous fungi mainly from Chile increases the number of new taxa known from South America even further. All specialists studying lichenicolous fungi will want to have this new book with such a comprehensive amount of information in his or her bookcase as much as they wanted to have his former book.

An international group of lichenologists from Spain and Denmark undertook two expeditions (in 2005 and 2008) to southern Chile and Argentina. They explored 60 localities, most of them in the Isla Navarino in the Beagle Channel. The present study of lichenicolous fungi is based on 696 samples representing 240 species, of which 189 are published in this book and of which six genera and 60 species are described as a new to science. Still, a further 51 species remain as undescribed!

In 1999, Galloway & Quilhot (Gayana Botanica 55: 111-185, 1999 [“1998”]) published a checklist of Chilean lichen-forming and lichenicolous fungi in which they reported only 32 lichenicolous fungi, based mainly on the collections of Spegazzini, Dodge, and Wedin.

The new species are described in detail and are well documented by 123 (of 132) excellent drawings and photographs, which we have come to expect as typical for Etayo. The introductory chapters are well written, and introduce the abiotic factors that influence the area as well as biotic factors (mainly vegetation types). Separate chapters discuss the hosts, co-evolution, and host specificity of lichenicolous fungi. A short note promises that a full account of the lichen biota of the study area will be published too.

Six new genera are described: Atronectria, similar to Pronectria but with brown, K+ blackish green ascomata; Macrographa, with large ascomata and three septate spores of unknown affinities; Pseudostigmidium, related to Stigmidium, but generally with an I+ red hymenium and 3-septate spores, with five species living on Pseudocyphellaria and Nephroma; Sarcoexcipula, with a thick and complex perithecial wall and large and septate ascospores; Umbilithecium, an Arthonia-like genus but with a different hymenial structure and simples spores; and Umushamyces, similar in habit to Arthonia, but with Biatora- or Bacidia-type asci.

Sixty new species are described in Arthonia, Atronectria, Bachmanniomyces, Capronia, Carbonea, Chalara, Corticifraga, Corticiruptor, Dactylospora, Diederimyces, Endococcus, Leptosphaeria, Lichenochora, Lichenopeltella, Macrographa, Merismatium, Microsphaeropsis, Minutoexcipula, Muellerella, Nanostictis, Nectriopsis, Neobarya, Niesslia, Odontotrema, Phaeosporobolus,Phoma, Plectocarpon, Polycoccum, Pronectria, Protothelenella, Pseudostigmidium, Rhagadostoma, Sarcoexcipula, Sclerococcum, Scoliciosporum, Skyttea, Sphaerellothecium, Stigmidium, Taeniolella, Toninia, Trichonectria, Umbilithecium, Umushamyces, Unguiculariopsis, and Xenonectriella. In addition seven new combinations are made and two new synonymies proposed, including placing the generic name Kalaallia as a new synonym of Opegrapha.

A key to species is provided for several genera covering species occurring in the study area: Capronia, Corticifraga, Dactylospora, Endococcus, Nanostictis, Neobarya, Niesslia, Phaeosporobolus, Phoma, Pronectria, and Pseudostigmidium. Unfortunately, overall keys to genera treated and the large genus Arthonia are not provided. An alphabetical list of lichen hosts and their fungi concludes the work, together with extensive literature citations, which will be much appreciated. Pseudocyphellaria and Nephroma antarcticum emerge as hosts that support really surprising numbers of lichenicolous fungi!

Etayo’s work deserves the highest evaluation. Lichenologists working in the Southern Hemisphere in particular will find this book very important for their own future studies of lichenicolous fungi. I am sure this work will encourage the interest of many new lichenologists and students in the discovery of as yet hidden additional lichenicolous fungi.

Jana Kocourková, Fac. Environmental Sciences, Dept. of Ecology, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague

MYCOTAXON vol. 110, 2009

Contenidos top ↑

Resumen 5
Abstract 7
Introducción 9
Material y métodos 11
Isla Navarino y ámbito de las recolecciones 12
Introducción a los líquenes de isla Navarino 15
Introducción a los hongos liquenícolas en la zona de estudio 19
El caso de Nephroma antarcticum, hongos liquenícolas y líquenes
liquenícolas 23
Los hongos liquenícolas y su especificidad genérica 25
Consideraciones sobre Parmelia s. str. y sus hongos liquenícolas 26
Coevolución de algunas especies de hongos liquenícolas con los
hospedantes 27
Especies de líquenes con diferentes representantes en el Hemisferio
Norte y Sur 27
Lista de localidades 29
Catálogo 35
Relaciones hongo-hospedante en la flora liquénica de Navarino 280
Agradecimientos 286
Bibliografía 287