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Biodiversity and ecology of lichens

Liber Amicorum Harrie Sipman

Ed.: André Aptroot; Mark R. D. Seaward; Laurens B. Sparrius

2009. 439 pages, 117 figures, 12 tables, 14x23cm, 800 g
Language: English

(Bibliotheca Lichenologica, Band 99)

ISBN 978-3-443-58078-0, paperback, price: 89.00 €

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Keywords

lichenbiodiversityglobal warmingecologyFlechteBiodiversitätglobale ErwärmungÖkologie

Contents

Synopsis top ↑

This volume on lichen biodiversity and ecology is dedicated to Harrie Sipman. It contains 29 peer-reviewed contributions by 50 authors. The emphasis is on the biodiversity and ecology of lichens in the tropics, but some papers are devoted to related areas. This volume is indispensable for active lichenologists, especially because it contains keys to several lichen genera. Full monographs are presented for the reinstated genus Herpothallon (with 29 species), the new genera Diaphorographis (with 2 species), Sipmaniella (with 1 species) and Synarthothelium (with 2 species), and the genus Placopyrenium (with 14 species and 3 varieties). Keys are furthermore given to all cryptothalline species of Lecidea, the lichenicolous genus Sphaerellothecium and the species of Cryptothecia and Stirtonia in Thailand. The genus Trypetheliopsis is resurrected for Musaespora, and all relevant combinations are made. Most papers describe various new species from all over the world, in the genera Bacidia, Buellia, Caloplaca, Chapsa, Cladonia, Cryptothecia, Diaphorographis, Gassicurtia, Herpothallon, Micarea, Phaeographis, Placocarpus, Placopyrenium, Porina, Pyrenula, Pyxine, Stirtonia, Strigula, Synarthothelium, Thelocarpon, Thelopsis, Xanthoparmelia, and Zwackhiomyces.

The newly described Thelopsis is intermediate between that genus and Topelia, leading to the supposition that these genera are one continuum and should be united. Floristic papers are presented on lichens from Montenegro, Korea, Japan, Thailand, Namibia (including the description of an association), South Africa and the Seychelles and bryophytes of the Galapagos, but specimens from a multitude of other countries ranging from Iceland to Australia are cited throughout the papers. The floristic papers contain also new synonymys and combinations, partly in additional genera like Mycomicrothelia. One paper is devoted to lichens and global warming. The volume also contains three phylogenetic studies, viz. on all lichen groups with cyanobacteria, on Schistophoron and on Tylophoron, in which a systematic placement for this enigmatic genus is postulated for the first time. The volume is completed by lists of published papers and species decribed by Harrie Sipman. The volume is richly illustrated and contains many colour photographs, e.g. from all Herpothallon species and from sections through the apothecia of many Lecidea species.

Review: Acta Botanica Hungarica 52(1-2), 2010 top ↑

It is an excellent volume for those who are interested in tropical lichenology since Harrie Sipman’s life combined to lichens and field work, especially in the tropics. His friends edited this volume filled with facts about Harrie (life history, publications, new taxa described by him and named in honour of him), highly valuable scientific papers (26) and a lot of emotions. Cryptogamic organisms (lichens, bryophytes, cyanobacteria) of exotic places are treated in the bulk of the papers of 49 authors. Since the topics are very variable, the papers are arranged in alphabetic order. This high diversity of the fields studied is the main advantage and perhaps also the only disadvantageous feature of the volume.

The most detailed study is on Herpothallon – a genus reinstated in the volume and involving 13 species of earlier Cryptothecia and Chiodecton species, so 13 new combinations are introduced and 17 species are described (Aptroot et al.). Extratropical areas covered are, e.g. the Azores (Ahti and Aptroot), Canary Islands (Brand et al.) or Montenegro (Bilovitz et al.). Four Cladonia species (two from the Azores and two from Iceland), two Bacidia species from Canary Islands, three Placopyrenium species and a variety, two lichenicolous fungi from Asia, five Xanthoparmelia species from Tasmania, two Chapsa species from Brazil, two genera (Sipmaniella and Diaphorographis) and five species by Kalb et al., a new genus by Sparrius, seven new Caloplaca species from Australia, a new Caloplaca species from USA, a new Caloplaca and a Buellia species from the Namib desert, a new Micarea species, six species form Korea, four species from Thailand, seven species from the Seychelles Islands are described as new to science. Musaespora is reduced to synonymy. As it is seen, the number and diversity of taxa presented is very high. Therefore it would have been useful to have an index to the whole volume. Among the not taxonomic or floristical papers there is one on climate change and ammonia (by van Herk) and another describes a new community on gypsum crusts in Australia (Wirth and Bungartz).

The editing is very nice in general, however the style of some papers (e.g. Seaward and Aptroot) does not fit to that of the others, i.e. the font size of the checklist is much smaller than that of the references and in this way it is very difficult to read. The number of excellent colour illustrations is really high, 19 of the 114 illustrations.

E. FARKAS

Acta Botanica Hungarica 52/1-2), 2010

Bespr.: Herzogia 22 (2009) top ↑

Eine Festschrift für Harrie Sipman ist eine wohlverdiente Geste der Freundschaft und Verbundenheit mit einem der aktivsten Lichenologen in Mitteleuropa, der über vier Jahrzehnte auf vielfältige Weise die Flechtenkunde gefördert hat. Neben seinen eigenen Veröffentlichungen steht auch seine langjährige Tätigkeit als Herausgeber diverser Fachzeitschriften und als ständig hilfsbereiter Kustos am Berliner Herbarium. Da die Festschrift bereits zum 64. Geburtstag erschien, kam sie für den Geehrten als völlige Überraschung.

Sie umfasst insgesamt 29 Beiträge. 25 davon sind entsprechend der vielfältigen Interessen Harries unterschiedlichen lichenologischen Fragen gewidmet. Ein weiterer Beitrag ist eine annotierte Checkliste der Leber- und Hornmoose der Galapagosinseln. Er rundet den Band ab, da er von S. R. Gradstein stammt, dem Doktorvater Harries. Die restlichen drei Beiträge wurden von A. Aptroot verfasst und sind der Biographie des Geehrten sowie den Zusammenstellungen der Publikationen Harrie Sipmans und der von ihm neu beschriebenen Taxa gewidmet. Leider ist die Veröffentlichungsliste nicht ganz fehlerfrei. So wird die chronologische Reihenfolge durchbrochen und eine Arbeit von Sollmann & Sipman (1980) doppelt aufgeführt. Auch die Band- oder Jahreszählung der Zeitschrift Buxbaumiella ist nicht nachvollziehbar, da sowohl 3 (1973) wie auch 5 (1973) und 7 (1973) auftauchen. Die Liste der von Harrie Sipman eingeführten taxonomischen Änderungen ist umfangreich und umfasst allein 9 neu beschriebene Gattungen. Sie wird von einer Liste mit 28 Harrie zu Ehren benannten Taxa, darunter die Gattungen Sipmania und Sipmaniella abgerundet. Der Rezensent hätte sich bei letzterer auch eine Angabe zum Publikationsort gewünscht, wie sie zuvor für die Neubeschreibungen des Jubilars erfolgte.

Wie bereits angedeutet ist das Themenspektrum der Fachartikel sehr vielfältig und reicht von Neubeschreibungen einzelner Arten (z. B. je zwei Cladonia-Arten von den Azoren und aus Island) bis zu Checklisten (z. B. für die Seychellen oder für die pyrenokarpen Flechten Koreas). Genauer sei hier nur auf Arbeiten eingegangen, die für die mitteleuropäische Flechtenflora besonders relevant sind. Hier wären die von O. Breuss vorgelegte Synopse der Gattung Placopyrenium (mit Schlüssel) sowie der von H. Hertel vorgelegte Schlüssel der kryptothallinen Lecidea-Arten zu nennen. Einen weiteren wichtigen Bestimmungsschlüssel für alle bekannten Arten der flechtenbewohnenden Pilzgattung Sphaerellothecium enthält eine Arbeit von P. Diederich und M. Zhurbenko.

Von besonderem Interesse für ökologisch interessierte Lichenologen (und Bryologen) Mitteleuropas dürfte vor allem der Beitrag von C. M. van Herk sein („Climate change and ammonia from cars as notable recent factors influencing epiphytic lichens in Zeeland, Netherlands“). Der Autor kann auf der Grundlage seiner seit 1997 im dreijährigen Rhythmus durchgeführten Erfassungen an jeweils mindestens 2500 Hybrid-Pappeln der Provinz Zeeland zeigen, dass es zu einer bisher nicht beobachteten, überdurchschnittlichen Zunahme von Flechten mit Trentepohlia-Photobionten kam, was als Indikator einer Klimaerwärmung interpretiert wird. Ein weiteres interessantes Ergebnis ist die leichte Zunahme von Nitrophyten in der unmittelbaren Nähe von Straßen durch die Emission von Ammoniak als Folge der zunehmenden und inzwischen fast vollständigen Verwendung von Katalysatoren in mit Benzin betriebenen Autos.

Abschließend sei Autoren und Herausgebern für eine gut gelungene Festschrift gedankt. Sie ist durch die Vielfalt der Beiträge und die hohe Zahl taxonomischer Neuerungen ein Muss für einschlägige Fachbibliotheken. Eine Gesamtliste aller neuen Namen hätte die Nutzbarkeit des Bandes noch erhöht.

Peter Scholz, Schkeuditz

Herzogia 22 (2009)

Review: Inoculum 60 (6) December 2009 top ↑

In 1979, while working as a field assistant in the Dry Valleys of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains and suffering from bio-deprivation, I found a small, ca, 4 mm diameter, yellow lichen in a protected wind-eroded crevice in a dolerite boulder. I was so pleased to find it, I burned an entire roll of film taking its picture. Not until I read this volume did I have a sense of its probable identity: Lecidia andersonii or possibly L. auriculata or L. promiscens.

In celebration of his birthday and recognition of his formal academic retirement, the present volume comprised of 26 original scientific contributions was prepared to honor the eminent lichenologist Harrie Sipman. The majority of the papers range from checklists of lichens to ecology, biogeography and descriptions of new species and genera, and phylogenetic appraisals of several groups. The quality of the papers is generally high, attributable to both researchers' efforts and rigorous editorial standards. The papers of greatest interest to the non-specialist reader will be those surveying cryptothaline species (Hertel), the evolution of cyanobacterial symbioses (Hognabba, Stenroos, Thell & Myllys) and effects of climate change and ammonia concentration on the distribution of lichens in the Netherlands (van Herk). However, no harm will come to anyone who reads the entire volume. Indeed, the methods described in several of the papers, closely read, could serve as a primer for current approaches to phylogenetic analyses. The usual suspects are all found - multigene reconstructions, parsimony and maximum, likelihood analyses, bootstrapping and Bayesian post-hoc probabilities. One paper presents statistical support for phylogenetic trees using jack-knifing. There is a brief, fond biographical note about Sipman and one paper cataloguing liverworts and hornworts. The quality of the illustrations is very good to excellent. Several of the papers include color photographs showing thallus habit and, unlike many publications, the photomicrographs clearly illustrate the indicated features.

Oh! to be an epithet! - a fitting aspiration for any biologist. The last page of the volume, which follows a list of Sipman's papers through 2008, lists the two genera and 26 species that have been named in his honor.

David Yohalem

Inoculum 60 (6) December 2009, page 13

Review: Plant Science Bulletin 56(2) 2010 top ↑

This recent collected volume in the Bibliotheca Lichenologica series includes twenty-nine miscellaneous contributions mainly in the systematics, taxonomy and floristics of lichen fungi (and lichenicolous fungi). The collection has been assembled as a Festschrift dedicated to the Dutch lichenologist H. J. M. “Harrie” Sipman on the occasion of his 64th birthday and final year before retirement from his scientific position in Berlin. The first editor, André Aptroot, is also author or co-author of eight of the 29 included papers. He leads off the volume with a lively, illustrated account of Harrie Sipman’s career and scientific adventures. However, the name of the institution where Dr. Sipman has spent so many productive years and the title of his position are nowhere stated, an odd and unfortunate omission in the career sketch. A chronologically arranged bibliography of Sipman’s scientific work -- 174 publications -- is supplied (also by Aptroot) at the volume’s end. A list of taxa he has described -- nine genera and 213 species -- is also appended.

The most substantial contribution in the collection (by Aptroot, Thor, Lücking, Elix and Chaves) segregates from the genus Cryptothecia a number of taxa under the resurrected name Herpothallon. Seventeen new species are described; a key is provided, along with detailed character descriptions and small but excellent color photos of the 29 taxa encompassed. The reinstated genus incorporates the well-known red-and-green corticolous crust (dubbed “Christmas lichen” in Brodo, Sharnoff & Sharnoff) now referred to as Herpothallon rubrocinctum.

Other biosystematic contributions deal with new species of Cladonia from the Azores (Ahti & Aptroot) and from Iceland (Kristinsson & Ahti), the genus Bacidia in the Canary Islands and western Europe (Brand, Coppins, van den Boom & Sérusiaux), a synopsis of Placopyrenium (Breuss), lichenicolous Sphaerellothecium and Zwackhiomyces (Diederich & Zhurbenko), new Xanthoparmelia from Tasmania (Elix & Kantvilas), Chapsa from Brazil (Frisch & Kalb) including new species with vegetative propagules, cryptothalline species of Lecidea (Hertel), new Caloplaca from Australia (Kondratyuk, Kärnefelt, Elix & Thell), a new Micarea from the West Indies (Sérusiaux & Coppins), a new genus in the Arthoniaceae (Synarthothelium Sparrius), the systematic postion of Schistophoron (Tehler, Baloch, Tibell & Wedin), and Xanthoparmelia lineola and related taxa (Thell, Elix & Søchting). Lumbsch, Lücking & Tibell contribute a molecular study of Tylophoron, a mazaedioid genus formerly included in the polyphyletic Caliciales, providing evidence that these lichen fungi belong in the Arthoniaceae/Arthoniales.

More floristically-oriented contributions in this volume consider lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Montenegro (Bilovitz, Knežević, Steševič & Mayrhofer), pyrenocarpous lichens of Japan (Kashiwadani, Aptroot & Moon) and Korea (Moon & Aptroot), the genera Cryptothecia and Stirtonia from Thailand (Wolseley & Aptroot), a lichen community from the Namib with a new species of Buellia (Wirth & Bungartz), various taxa from southern Africa (Schulz, Zedda & Rambold) and the Asia-Pacific region (Kalb, Archer, Sutjaritturakan & Boonpragog), and offer a lichen checklist for the Seychelles (Seaward & Aptroot). A contribution by Högnabba, Stenroos, Thell & Myllys analyzes molecular sequences in ascomycete fungi to reconstruct evolutionary gains and losses of symbioses with cyanobacteria. Changes in the epiphytic lichen vegetation monitored in the Netherlands over nine years are attributed to climate change and nitrogen pollution (van Herk). And seemingly misplaced in this collection is an annotated checklist of Galápagos liverworts and hornworts (by S. R. Gradstein) that one hopes will somehow manage to find its public, or vice-versa. A total of nine new taxa described in this volume are named in honor of Dr. Sipman.

As with many of the Festschrifts in the Bibliotheca Lichenologica series, this paperback volume, with its scattered themes and hefty cover price (89 euros; about US $130), will not necessarily find a place in every lichen biologist’s library. Those with less than unlimited funds to spend on bibliography will want to first peruse this collection and carefully weigh the relevance of the individual contributions to their own interests.

William B. Sanders, Florida Gulf Coast University, Ft. Myers, FL.

Plant Science Bulletin 56(2) 2010

Review: Bibliography of Systematic Mycology, 12(9):, April 2010 top ↑

This collection of 26 papers (all but three listed and indexed in this Bibliography issue) plus a biographical introduction and lists of Harrie Sipman’s publications and taxa described by him up to the beginning of 2008 (by Aptroot, pp. 5-10, 423-432, 433-440) celebrates his 65th birthday and impending retirement from Berlin.

The coverage is truly global, by 66 authors from 20 countries (many contributing to several papers), detailing collections and records from Australia, Azores, Brazil, Canary Islands, Costa Rica, Galapagos, Iceland, Japan, Korea, Montenegro, Namibia, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, South Africa, Thailand, West Indies and USA to name only the most prominent locations, reflecting the dedicatee’s own cosmopolitan interests and achievements.

Eighteen of these papers generate an impressive 93 novel taxa and combinations in some 30 genera, including three new generic names; Aptroot et al. (pp. 19-66) alone contribute 12 (not 13 as indicated) new combinations and 17 (not 16) new species in the reinstated genus Herpothallon.

There are eight new species with the epithet sipmanii (in Bacidia, Buellia, Caloplaca, Chapsa, Herpothallon, Micarea, Pyrenula and Zwackhiomyces) and one sipmanianum (see below), while Kalb (with others, pp. 225-246) provides ‘the icing on the (birthday) cake’ with the new monotypic genus Sipmaniella (Lecanoraceae) accommodating Fée’s Lecanora sulfureofusca, and another new genus, Diaphorographis (Graphidaceae), for two new taxa from Australasia. Sparrius (pp. 373-382) also introduces a new genus, Synarthothelium (Arthoniaceae; type: S. sipmanianum), appropriately for two ‘Enterographa’ collected by Sipman in Costa Rica and Venezuela.

Of the 23 systematic papers, four constitute the result of molecular studies on the evolution of cyanobacterial symbioses in Ascomycota (Högnabba et al., pp. 163-184), discuss the systematic placement of Tylophoron (Arthoniales, Lumbsch et al., pp. 285-296) and Schistophoron (?Graphidaceae, Tehler et al., pp. 383-392) and investigate Xanthoparmelia lineola s. lat. in Australia and North America (Thell et al., pp. 393-404). A further five papers provide keys to Placopyrenium (Breuss, pp. 93-112), Sphaerellothecium (Diederich & Zhurbenko, pp. 113-112), cryptothalline Lecidea including endolithic species of a few related genera (Hertel, pp. 185-204), Thai Haematomma (Kalb et al., pp. 225-246) and Cryptothecia, Herpothallon and Stirtonia (Wolseley & Aptroot, pp. 411-422) from northern Thailand.

Finally, there is a list of 28 taxa (including a Sphagnum moss) named in honour of Sipman, incorporating those of the present work (though indicated as published in 2008, not 2009) but omitting Lepraria sipmaniana (Kümmerl. & Leuckert) Kukwa (2002).

Ken Hudson

Bibliography of Systematic Mycology, 12(9), April 2010

Review: MYCOTAXON vol. 110, 2009 top ↑

This volume is designed to pay tribute to Harrie Sipman, ever the Dutchman, who has spent his entire postgraduate career as lichenologist at the Botanical Garden and Museum in Berlin, as he enters his final year to retirement. The collection comprises 26 papers, plus an account of his professional life and lists of his publications and new taxa he introduced. They have been prepared by his colleagues, and nine contributions are by or co-authored with André Aptroot. The main focus of Harrie’s work has been the tropics, and photographs of him in the field in Brazil, Guyana, and New Guinea are included. The volume consequently has a strong tropical focus, in which the papers on the Biogradska Gora National Park in Montenegro and two new Cladonia species from Iceland, for example, seem rather out of place. New taxa are described from Australia (in Caloplaca and Xanthoparmelia<(/i>), Brazil (in Chapsa), the Canary Islands (in Bacidia), Korea (six pyrenocarpous species), Namibia (in Buellia), Thailand (in Cryptothecia and Stirtonia), and the West Indies (in Micarea). There is also a checklist of lichens from the Seychelles group, and a catalogue of the liverworts and hornworts (yes, not the lichens) of the Galapagos Island (by Robbert Gradstein, one of Harrie’s early mentors). However, of the widest interest here are the revisionary papers, the longest of which, at 48 pages, is on the re-instatement of Herpothallon as distinct from Cryptothecia, with 29 species now accepted in Herpothallon, of which 17 are newly described and 13 combined into it; but I do wonder whether conservation of Cryptothecia with a different type might have been a preferred option in the interest of nomenclatural stability, as some of these lichens are so conspicuous and well-known. There is also a synopsis Placopyrenium, which accepts 14 species (three newly described), a key to the known species of the lichenicolous genus Sphaerellothecium (19 species, one newly described), the resurrection of Trypetheliopsis (six species, five newly combined), which proves to be an earlier name for Musaespora described in 1993, a new genus of Arthoniaceae (Synarthothelium) for two new species from Costa Rica and Venezuela), molecular phylogenetic studies to determine the positions of Schistophoron and Tylophoron, and a new worldwide key to cryptothalline species of Lecidea (ones forming endolithic thalli and accompanied by fine coloured photomicrographs of apothecial sections). Of especial interest to those fascinated by the evolutionary history of lichens is a critical examination of the evolution of cyanobacterial symbioses based on molecular sequence data; it is concluded that these mutualisms evolved repeatedly, and that now seems clear for Lecanoromycetes, but with Lichinomycetes still basal to the Lecanoromycetes (albeit with ambiguous support), this may not be the last word on this topic! This is a Festschrift that all working with tropical crustose lichens in particular will wish to have on their shelves. I am sure Harrie will enjoy it and reflect how far knowledge on these lichens has progressed since his monograph of the mainly tropical Megalosporaceae was published as no. 18 in Bibliotheca Lichenologica back in 1983. I am sure all lichenologists will wish him a fulfilling and productive “retirement.”

MYCOTAXON vol. 110, 2009

Table of Contents top ↑

A. Aptroot: Harrie Sipman - a life for lichenology 5
T. Ahti & A. Aptroot: Two new species of Cladonia from the Azores 11
Aptroot, G. Thor, R. Lücking, J.A. Elix & J.L. Chaves: The lichen
genus Herpothallon reinstated 19
P.O. Bilovitz, B. Kneževic, D. Steševic & H. Mayrhofer: Lichenized and
lichenicolous fungi from Bjelasica (Montenegro) with special
emphasis on the Biogradska Gora National Park 69
M. Brand, B.J. Coppins, P.P.G. van den Boom & E. Sérusiaux: Further
data on the lichen genus Bacidia s. l. in the Canary Islands and
Western Europe, with description of two new species 83
O. Breuss: A synopsis of the lichen genus Placopyrenium
(Verrucariaceae) with descriptions of new taxa and a key to all
species 95
P. Diederich & M. Zhurbenko: Sphaerellothecium phaeorrhizae and
Zwackhiomyces sipmanii spp. nov. on Phaeorrhiza sareptana from
north-eastern Asia, with a key to the species of Sphaerellothecium 115
J.A. Elix & G. Kantvilas: Further new species of Xanthoparmelia
(Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota) from Tasmania 125
A. Frisch & K. Kalb: Chapsa species (Thelotremataceae) from Brazil 135
S.R. Gradstein: Annotated catalogue of the liverworts and hornworts of
the Galapagos Islands 145
F. Högnabba, S. Stenroos, A. Thell & L. Myllys: Evolution of
cyanobacterial symbioses in Ascomycota 165
H. Hertel: A new key to cryptothalline species of the genus Lecidea
(Lecanorales) 187
C.M. van Herk: Climate change and ammonia from cars as notable
recent factors influencing epiphytic lichens in Zeeland, Netherlands 207
K. Kalb, A.W. Archer, J. Sutjaritturakan & K. Boonpragob: New
or otherwise interesting lichens V 227
H. Kashiwadani, A. Aptroot & K.H. Moon: New pyrenocarpous lichens in
Japan, with the resurrection of the genus Trypetheliopsis for
Musaespora 249
S.Y. Kondratyuk, I. Kärnefelt, J.A. Elix & A. Thell:
New Caloplaca species from Australia 261
H. Kristinsson & T. Ahti: Two new species of Cladonia from Iceland 281
H.T. Lumbsch, R. Lücking & L. Tibell: Molecular data place Tylophoron
as an additional calicioid genus in the Arthoniales (Ascomycota) 287
K.H. Moon & A. Aptroot: Pyrenocarpous lichens in Korea 299
M. Schultz, L. Zedda & G. Rambold, New records of lichen taxa from
Namibia and South Africa 317
M.R.D. Seaward & A. Aptroot: Checklist of lichens for the Seychelles
group 337
E. Sérusiaux & B.J. Coppins: Micarea sipmanii, a new species with
arbuscular pycnidia from the West indies 369
L.B. Sparrius: Synarthothelium, a new genus in the Arthoniaceae with
a thalline exciple, similar to Synarthonia 375
Tehler, E. Baloch, L. Tibell & M. Wedin: The systematic position
of Schistophoron 385
Thell, J.A. Elix & U. Søchting: Xanthoparmelia lineola s. l.
in Australia and North America 395
V. Wirth & F. Bungartz: The Lecidelletum crystallinae, a lichen
community on gypsum crusts of the Namib Desert, characterized
by the new species Buellia sipmanii 407
P.A. Wolseley & A. Aptroot: The lichen genera Cryptothecia and
Stirtonia in N. Thailand 413
A. Aptroot: List of publications by H.J.M. Sipman 425
A. Aptroot: List of taxa described by H.J.M. Sipman 435